Nine lung hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus species from man were analysed by electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis and by biochemical tests. In addition respective sera of the host were analysed for comparison.
Analysis revealed striking similarities in cellulose acetate and agarose gel electro- and immunoelectrophoretic patterns of proteins from hydatid cyst fluid and the serum of the respective hosts.
It is presumed that serum proteins (albumin and globulins) occur in hydatid cyst fluid, but in smaller amount than in serum, an we believe that the host proteins can penetrate the membranes of the hydatid cyst. This article reports a comparative study of the developmental patterns of blind, partially sighted and fully sighted children during the first few years of life.
Using the (previous reported) Reynell-Zinkin developmental scale for visually handicapped children, the groups were compared in the five developmental areas of (a) social adaptation, (b) sensori-motor understanding, (c) exploration of environment, (d) verbal comprehension and (e) expressive language. It was found that 10 to 12 months was the age at which the sighted group began to outstrip the visually handicapped children in most of the developmental areas. This divergence increased until towards, the upper end of scale (4 to 5 years for the visually handicapped) when more abstract thought processes began to develop.
The effect of visual handicap was also seen in the greater advantage of the partially sighted over the blind children. The patterns of development varied somewhat in the five different areas. The findings point to the need for intensive help for visually handicapped children from the earliest months of life. Modification of a Perkin-Elmer 603 atomic absorption spectrophotometer by adding a high-intensity tungsten-halogen lamp for background correction significantly improved the detection limit for elements that have analytical wavelengths in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions.
Chromium in human serum and urine can be measured, with a simplified sample-handling technique, in concentrations of less than 0.1 microgram/liter. For comparison, the mean value for chromium in the serum of eight men was 0.14 microgram/liter.
This procedure for determining serum proline in patients with hyperprolinemia involves protein precipitation (Folin-Wu method), color development with isatin, extraction of the color with methylene chloride and measurement of its absorbance at 600 nm.
The specificity and analytical recovery show the method to be suitable for this use. On 20 consecutive work days during four weeks, one technologist performed 24 microchromatographic determinations of hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) by each of four methods: the Efremov procedure requiring Tris/HCl buffer, the original Huisman technique with use of glycine developer, and two commercial test kits in which a modified glycine developer is used.
The bloood samples tested were obtained from 12 adults with no hematological abnormality and from 12 beta-thalassemia carriers previously diagnosed by familial and hematologic studies. Results by the first method and the two commercial kits (one from Helena Laboratories and one from Isolab, Inc.) did not differ significantly in precision for either the normal or beta-thalassemia trait samples. For both sample types, the second method yielded larger coefficients of variation than those obtained with the other methods.
Moreover, the second method was the only one with which values overlapped for normal samples and samples with above-normal Hb A2 concentrations. o-Phthaldialdehdye reagent was used in assaying urea with a miniature centrifugal analyzer.
Seventeen samples can be assayed kinetically in 2 min at a current cost of less than a penny per test. The reaction is initiated in the instrument upon simultaneous mixing of the o-phthaldialdehyde reagent containing 10 microliter of sample with dilute sulfuric acid/N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride reagent.
The reaction is monitored kinetically at 546 nm during the initial 2 min, when the rate is nearly constant. The reaction of o-phthaldialdehyde with urea reaches equilibrium by about 7 or 8 min, but the method cannot be used for end-point analysis because of interference by the blank reaction. A 1.2 g/liter solution of o-phthaldialdehyde used in conjunction with 2 mol/liter sulfuric acid solution was found to be most suitable for centrifugal analyzers.